ይህች አነስተኛ ፅሑፍ የፃፍከበት ምክንያት በኢትዮጵያችን ለ 6ተኛ ጊዜ የተከናወነውን ምርጫ አንዳንድ ተማርን የሚሉ ሰዎች እንዲሁም የፓለቲካ ድርጅቶቻቸው በአንዳንድ ድረገፅ ወይም በኢሜል ያስተላለፉትን መልዕክት በመመልከቴ ነው፡
እነዚህ እናውቃለን የሚሉ ግለሰቦችና ቡድኖች (በርግጥ አነርሱም ሆነ ቡድኖቻቸው ቅንጣት ታህል ተፅዕኖ መፍጠር የሚችሉ አይደለም) ስለ ተከናወነው ምርጫ መግለጫ አውጥተዋል በስፋትም እንዲነበብላቸው ተማፅነዋል።
ለመሆኑ የገመገሙት ምንድር ነው? ስለምርጫስ ያላቸው እውቀት ምን ያህል ነው? እንግዲህ ራሳቸሁ ባመጣችሁት ወግና ጨዋታ እኔ ደግሞ በተራዬ እናንተን ልመዝን ነው።
ምርጫ ሲባል ፕሮሰሱና የተዋቀረበት ፕሪንስፕል ነው? ወይስ ትልቁን ቁምነገር የሚይዘው በመጨርሻው ቀን የሚደረገው የድምፅ ቆጠራ ስሌት ነው? በርግጥ ሁለቱ የተዛመዱ ከሆነ ውጤቱ ያማረና የላቀ ነው፣ ግን እንደሰካራም ሰው እግር የኋለኛው የፊተኛውን እያደናቀፈ ከመስመር የሚያስወጣው ከሆነ ይሄን ጉዞ ጤነኛ ነው ትላላችሁ ወይስ አንደኛውን ሌላውን አሰናክለው ነው የሚባለው? ሾኬ የሚል ቋንቋ አንድ የቀድሞ ይስፓርት አስተማሪዬ ያዘወትሩ ነበር። የምርጫ ተአማኒነት የት ላይ ይጀምራል ድምፅ በሚቆጠርበት ቀን ወይስ መች?
ድምፅ የሚሰጥበት ሳጥን እተቀመጠበት ድንኳን ውስጥ ከመዝለቃችሁ በፊት ምርጫ እንደ ፕሮሰስ (ሂደት) የሚጓዙት መንገድ ወይስ የመጀመሪያው የመጨረሻውም በር ራሱ አንዱ የምርጫው ሳጥን የተቀመጠበት ድንኳን በር ነው?
ከቤት መሃል የተቀመጠ አንድ ወንበር ያለበት ጠረጴዛ ጋ ተሽቀዳድሞ ለመድረስ ፣ በኋላም በር፣ በፊት ለፊት በር ፣በጎን በር መግባት ይቻላል? ይህስ ፍትሃዊ ነው? ሁሉም እኩል የተመጠነ ርቀት ሊኖራቸው አይገባም የውድድሩ መሪዎችም ሁኑ ተወዳዳሪዎች ለሁሉም እኩል የሚሰራ ህግ እንዲኖር መጠየቅ አይኖርባቸውም ?ተመልካቹስ ለምን አያንገራግርም?
ለእነዚህ ጥያቄዎች መልስ መጠየቄ እናንተን ላጋልጥ ለተናጋሪ አሳልፌያችሁ ልሰጥ ሳይሆን ቀደም ሲል እንደ አዋቂ ሆናችሁ ከሰዉ በፊት ተሽቀዳድማችሁ ያወጣችኋቸውን መግለጫዎችና ንግግሮች እንድታስቧቸው ወይም ለወደፊቱ ጥንቃቄ ማድረግ እንዳለባችሁ ላስገነዝባችሁ ነው ። ሁለት አይን ሁለት ጆሮ አንድ ምላስ አይደል ያለን?
እንዲህ ሆነላችሁ !
አንድ ወቅት ብዙም ሳይርቅ ብልጣብልጡ የመንደር አለቃ የመንደሩን ቂሎች ስብስቦ እርሱ የሚመራውን ቡድን እንዲደግፉት በማሰብ ይዞአቸው ከሜዳ ወረደ።
አስገራሚው ነገር ከመነሻው ተከሰተ ፣ ከሁለት መልበሻ ወይም መዘጋጃ ክፍል በመውጣት ወደ ኳስ ሜዳ የገቡት ተጫዋቾች ከጥቂቶች በስተቀር አብዛኛው የለበሱት ቢጫ ማልያ ነው : ጫዋታው በወዳጅነት መንፈስ እንደነገሩ ፉክክር ተደርጎበት ቢጫ በለበሰው የመሃል ዳኛ ፊሽካ ድምፅ ተጠናቀቀ ።
አሸናፊው ቡድን ቢጫ ለባሹ ቡድን መሆኑን አስታወቆ ዋንጫውንም አስረከበ።
ቂሎች ተመልካቾች ጨዋታውን ሲገመግሙ አንድም ቀይ ካርድ ያልታየበት ድንቅ ፀባይ የታየበት ነው አሉ ።ቢጫ ካርዱም ቢሆን በ90 ደቂቃ ውስጥ 4 ብቻ ነው: 100% የተዋጣለት እንዳንል ትንሽ መንገጫገጭ Irregularity, ታይቷል አሉ።
ሲደመድሙ ! ውጤቱን በፐርሰንት ብናሰላዉ አሸናፊው ቡድን 98% ብልጫ አሳይቷል ጫወታውም ፍፁም የተሳካ ነበር ብለው እርፍ።
እዚህ ላይ የኔ ጥያቄ የሚያርፈው እነዚህ ቂሎች አብዛኞቹ ለፅሃይ መከላከያ ሲሉ ዲ ፤ አር የሚል ምልክት ያለው ኮፍያ ያጠለቁ በእውን ቂሎች ወይስ አድርባዮች? ወይስ ኮንፊውዝድ የሆኑ? ወይስ እንደጎባጣው ሚስተር ሎሌ እራሳቸውን ያጎበጡ ናቸው? ወይስ እንደ ባለአንድ ዓይናው ባላባት አገልጋዮች አይናቸውን የጋረዱ ነቸውን? እንዴት ሜዳውን የሞላው ባለቢጫ ማሊያ ብቻ መሆኑን መለየት ተሳናቸው?
በስታዲዮሙ ዙርያ ባሉት ዛፍችና ረዣዥም የስልክ መስመር የሚያልፍባቸዉ እንጨቶች ላይ ተቀምጠው ጫወታ የሚመለከቱት ወፎች እንኳን በጭብጨባው ተደናግጠው ይሆን ወይም የዳኛው ብይንና የጫወታው ህግ መጣሱን ተረድተው ይሆን አላውቅም! ሁሉም ከተቀመጡበት በረው ነው የነጎዱት። በራሪ ወፎች በማስተዋል ችሎታ የበለጧችሁ ባለ ምልክት ባርኔጣዎች ምን ትላላችሁ? አሁንም ጫወታው ትክክል ነው የምትሉት?
ጠያቂው ደግሞ ተጠያቁ ይሁን እውነቱ ፈረደ ምን ትላለህ?
በኔ አስተያየት (ዋቢ አድርጌ የምጠቅሰውን ዶክመንት ተያይዟልና (Attachment) ተመልከቱት። ምርጫ የዲሞክራሲ እምብርት የሰብአዊ መብት ትግል ውጤት ነው ።
ዘመናዊው አለም የዘረጋው የፖለቲካ ሲስተም ማዕከሉ ይኽው የስልጣን ምንጭና ባለቤት መሆኑን የሚያረጋግጥበት ምርጫ ነው። ግን ይህ እውን የሚሆነው ስለተደሰኮረ ሳይሆን በተግባር ከዋለ ብቻ ነው ።
በታማኝነትና በፀና አቋም (Integrity) ሲከናወንና ዜጋዎች በማንና እንዴት መተዳደር እንዳለባቸው በነፃነት የመግለፅ መብታቸው የተጠበቀ ከሆነ ብቻ ነው።
የምርጫ ውጤት ከሚያስገኘው አንዱ የማስተዳደር ስልጣንን (Governing Power) የመስጠት ብቃቱ ነው :ይህ ድል በዜጎች ነፃና ፍትሃዊ የምርጫ ተሳትፎ የተገኘ ካልሆነ ድሉ ድል ተብሎ አይቆጠርም።
ስነልቦናዊ (Psychological) ህዝባዊ ፣እንዲሁም ህጋዊ ቅቡልነት፣( በዲሞክራሲያዊ ሚዛን ሲመዘን) የሌለው በመሆኑ በአንባገነኖችና በአድርባዮች አይን ካልሆነ በስተቀር በውስጡ አንድም መልካም ዜና የለውም።
Election ተቀባይነት እንዲኖረው አድሎአዊ ያልሆነ ፍትሃዊና ግልፅነት ያለው ተቃዋሚ/ተፎካካሪ የፓለቲካ ፓርቲዎችን ገዢው ፓርቲ ከሚኖረው ፕሪቪሌጅ የተስተካከለ መብት ያላቸው፣
እያንዳንዱ ዜጋ ያለምንም ተፅዕኖ፣ ማስፈራራት ከቀርቡት አማራጭ አጀንዳዎችና ፓሊሲዎች መሃል የተሻለ ነው የሚለውን በነፃነት የሚመርጥበት ሥርዓት መዘርጋት የሚያስችለዉ ከሆነ ነዉ።
እንግዲህ ከዚህ አንፃር በኢትዮጵያችን የተደረገውን የብልፅግና ፓርቲ 98% አሸናፊ ሆኖ የወጣበትን የምርጫ ውጤት መገምገም የናንተ የዜጎች ድርሻ ነው። በእውቀትና በማስተዋል እንጂ እንደአንዳንድ የኳስ ጫዋታ ደጋፊዎች በጭፍን (ከርሱ ውጭ ሌላውን አልደግፍም የሚሉ) አንፍረድ፣ ይህ የህዝባችንና የሃገራችን ጉዳይ ነው ፣ቢቀር ቢቀር ለህሊናችንና ለትውልዱ ስንል እውነቱን እንመስክር።
እውነት ስለራሷ ስለምትመሰክር ከትዝብት መዳን ብልህነት ይመስለኛል።
ለማገናዘብ እንዲረዳችሁ ከመፍረዳችሁ በፊት አባሪዉን እንዲመለከቱት እጠይቃለሁ።
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a milestone document in the history of human rights. Drafted by representatives with different legal and cultural backgrounds from all regions of the world, the Declaration was proclaimed by the United Nations General Assembly in Paris on 10 December 1948 (General Assembly resolution 217 A) as a common standard of achievements for all peoples and all nations. It sets out, for the first time, fundamental human rights to be universally protected and it has been translated into over 500 languages.
Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance.
Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.
(1)Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association.
(2)No one may be compelled to belong to an association.
(1)Everyone has the right to take part in the government of his country, directly or through freely chosen representatives.
(2)Everyone has the right of equal access to public service in his country.
(3)The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government; this will shall be expressed in periodic and genuine elections which shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret vote or by equivalent free voting procedures
Universal Declaration of Human Rights at 70: 30 Articles on 30 Articles – Article 21
Article 21: A Short Course in Democracy
In three concise paragraphs, Article 21 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) outlines some of the fundamental principles of democracy: the will of the people should be the basis of government authority, and everyone has the right to take part in the government “directly or through freely chosen representatives.” It calls for periodic, genuine elections with universal suffrage and secret ballot, and also establishes that “everyone has the right to equal access to public service.”
It does not actually include the word “democracy” – which does not appear anywhere in the UDHR, apart from one reference, in Article 29, to “democratic society.” Just three years after the end of World War II, the term “democracy” was already snared up in the rapidly developing Cold War ideological disputes, with the Soviet bloc and Western countries interpreting the term quite differently.
“No famine has ever taken place in the history of the world in a functioning democracy.”
–– Amartya Sen, Indian winner of the 1998 Nobel Prize in economics
This Article, in making core elements of democracy a fundamental human right, reflects the resounding statement in the Preamble to the UDHR that “it is essential” that human rights must be protected by rule of law “if man is not to be compelled to have recourse, as a last resort, to rebellion against tyranny and oppression.”
Fresh in the minds of the UDHR drafters was the election of Adolf Hitler through democratic processes, and his subsequent rejection of the very same processes as a foundation for the democratic state. Instead, he advanced
the Führerprinzip (leader principle) based on the philosophy that the best, strongest and brightest should rule the weaker and “less pure.” Such a leader would command total obedience from those under him, and he was above, and therefore could totally disregard, the rule of law. In this respect, like so many others, the UDHR can be seen as a key part of the world’s attempt to inoculate itself against any future would-be dictators.
To a considerable extent it has been successful: the adoption of the Universal Declaration has been credited with helping advance the spread of democracy throughout the world since 1950, when there were just 20-25 democratic countries. Since then, the percentage of countries where the government is formed on the basis of majority rule, determined by regular elections, has risen considerably, boosted first of all by the end of colonialism and then by the collapse of Communism in the Soviet Bloc in 1989.
In recent years, the number of countries around the world holding periodic free and fair elections rose to a postwar high. However, the tide may now be receding, with various countries, including established democracies, appearing to be moving backwards. A number of think tanks and civil society organizations have reported that, after years of advance, the proportion of “free” democracies is now declining.
“I do not acknowledge that there are various models of democracy; there is just democracy itself.”
– Shirin Ebadi, Iranian lawyer and winner of 2003 Nobel Peace Prize
They place the blame for this on various factors, including increasingly brazen actual (or would-be) autocrats, divisive politics and disillusioned electorates. The United States’ withdrawal from its leadership role in promoting human rights at the global level is also cited. And there are signs that the younger generations of adults have little knowledge or memory of their parents’ experiences under fascism and communism and may be losing faith and interest in the democratic project.
Populism, driven by parties from the political extremes, is once again pushing for power via existing democratic processes – its promoters described by former UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan as “charismatic individuals or fake prophets promising simplistic solutions to people’s grievances through radical policies that dismiss institutions and laws as either irrelevant or inconvenient.”
Democracies are not only about elections and parliaments: they also depend on effective channels for people’s broader participation in policy discussions and decisions, including at the local and regional levels; and rule of law and human rights are indispensable for a truly democratic system.
A number of key rights contained elsewhere in the UDHR are among the first casualties when democracy withers. Laws are brought in to curtail freedom of expression and opinion (Article 19); and the freedom of assembly and association (Article 20) is also among the first to go, smothering civic space (often referred to as “the oxygen of democracy”). The rule of law Articles (6-11) soon follow – undermined by redrawn legislation and amendments to Constitutions designed to strengthen the leadership’s hold on power.
Once the rule of law and independence of the judiciary have been compromised, social, economic and cultural rights are endangered, especially for those parts of the population viewed unfavourably by the party in power. The slide from democracy to dictatorship can be startlingly rapid.
Declaration on Criteria for Free and Fair Elections
Unanimously adopted by the Inter-Parliamentary Council at its 154th session (Paris, 26 March 1994)
The Inter-Parliamentary Council,
Reaffirming the significance of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights which establish that the authority to govern shall be based on the will of the people as expressed in periodic and genuine elections,
Acknowledging and endorsing the fundamental principles relating to periodic free and fair elections that have been recognized by States in universal and regional human rights instruments, including the right of everyone to take part in the government of his
or her country directly or indirectly through freely chosen representatives, to vote in such elections by secret ballot, to have an equal opportunity to become a candidate for election, and to put forward his or her political views, individually or in association with others,
Conscious of the fact that each State has the sovereign right, in accordance with the will of its people, freely to choose and develop its own political, social, economic and cultural systems without interference by other States in strict conformity with the United Nations Charter,
Wishing to promote the establishment of democratic, pluralist systems of representative government throughout the world,
Recognizing that the establishment and strengthening of democratic processes and institutions is the common responsibility of governments, the electorate and organized political forces, that periodic and genuine elections are a necessary and indispensable element of sustained efforts to protect the rights and interests of the governed and that, as a matter of practical experience, the right of everyone to take part in the government of his or her country is a crucial factor in the effective enjoyment by all of human rights and fundamental freedoms,
Welcoming the expanding role of the United Nations, the Inter-Parliamentary Union, regional organizations and parliamentary assemblies, and international and national non-governmental organizations in providing electoral assistance at the request of governments,
Therefore adopts the following Declaration on Free and fair Elections,
and urges Governments and Parliaments throughout the world to be guided by the principles and standards set out therein :
1. Free and Fair Elections
In any State the authority of the government can only derive from the will of the people as expressed in genuine, free and fair elections held at regular intervals on the basis of universal, equal and secret suffrage.
2. Voting and Elections Rights
(1) Every adult citizen has the right to vote in elections, on a non-discriminatory basis.
(2)Every adult citizen has the right to access to an effective, impartial and non-discriminatory procedure for the registration of voters.
(3)No eligible citizen shall be denied the right to vote or disqualified from registration as a voter, otherwise than in accordance with objectively verifiable criteria prescribed by law, and provided that such measures are consistent with the State’s obligations under international law.
(4)Every individual who is denied the right to vote or to be registered as a voter shall be entitled to appeal to a jurisdiction competent to review such decisions and to correct errors promptly and effectively.
(5)Every voter has the right to equal and effective access to a polling station in order to exercise his or her right to vote.
(6)Every voter is entitled to exercise his or her right equally with others and to have his or her vote accorded equivalent weight to that of others.
(7)The right to vote in secret is absolute and shall not be restricted in any manner whatsoever.
3. Candidature, Party and Campaign Rights and Responsibilities
(1)Everyone has the right to take part in the government of their country and shall have an equal opportunity to become a candidate for election. The criteria for participation in government shall be determined in accordance with national constitutions and laws and shall not be inconsistent with the State’s international obligations.
(2)Everyone has the right to join, or together with others to establish, a political party or organization for the purpose of competing in an election.
(3)Everyone individually and together with others has the right:
To express political opinions without interference;
To seek, receive and impart information and to make an informed choice;
To move freely within the country in order to campaign for election;
To campaign on an equal basis with other political parties, including the party forming the existing government.
(4)Every candidate for election and every political party shall have an equal opportunity of access to the media, particularly the mass communications media, in order to put forward their political views.
(5)The right of candidates to security with respect to their lives and property shall be recognized and protected.
(6)Every individual and every political party has the right to the protection of the law and to a remedy for violation of political and electoral rights.
(7)The above rights may only be subject to such restrictions of an exceptional nature which are in accordance with law and reasonably necessary in a democratic society in the interests of national security or public order (ordre public), the protection of public health or morals or the protection of the rights and freedoms of others and provided they are consistent with States’ obligations under international law. Permissible restrictions on candidature, the creation and activity of political parties and campaign rights shall not be applied so as to violate the principle of non-discrimination on grounds of race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.
(8)Every individual or political party whose candidature, party or campaign rights are denied or restricted shall be entitled to appeal to a jurisdiction competent to review such decisions and to correct errors promptly and effectively.
(9)Candidature, party and campaign rights carry responsibilities to the community. In particular, no candidate or political party shall engage in violence.
(10)Every candidate and political party competing in an election shall respect the rights and freedoms of others.
(11)Every candidate and political party competing in an election shall accept the outcome of a free and fair election.
4. The Rights and Responsibilities of States
(1)States should take the necessary legislative steps and other measures, in accordance with their constitutional processes, to guarantee the rights and institutional framework for periodic and genuine, free and fair elections, in accordance with their obligations under international law. In particular, States should:
Establish an effective, impartial and non-discriminatory procedure for the registration of voters;
Establish clear criteria for the registration of voters, such as age, citizenship and residence, and ensure that such provisions are applied without distinction of any kind;
Provide for the formation and free functioning of political parties, possibly regulate the funding of political parties and electoral campaigns, ensure the separation of party and State, and establish the conditions for competition in legislative elections on an equitable basis;
Initiate or facilitate national programmes of civic education, to ensure that the population are familiar with election procedures and issues;
(2)In addition, States should take the necessary policy and institutional steps to ensure the progressive achievement and consolidation of democratic goals, including through the establishment of a neutral, impartial or balanced mechanism for the management of elections. In so doing, they should, among other matters:
Ensure that those responsible for the various aspects of the election are trained and act impartially, and that coherent voting procedures are established and made known to the voting public;
Ensure the registration of voters, updating of electoral rolls and balloting procedures, with the assistance of national and international observers as appropriate;
Encourage parties, candidates and the media to accept and adopt a Code of Conduct to govern the election campaign and the polling period;
Ensure the integrity of the ballot through appropriate measures to prevent multiple voting or voting by those not entitled thereto;
Ensure the integrity of the process for counting votes.
(3)States shall respect and ensure the human rights of all individuals within their territory and subject to their jurisdiction. In time of elections, the State and its organs should therefore ensure:
That freedom of movement, assembly, association and expression are respected, particularly in the context of political rallies and meetings;
That parties and candidates are free to communicate their views to the electorate, and that they enjoy equality of access to State and public-service media;
That the necessary steps are taken to guarantee non-partisan coverage in State and public-service media.
(4)In order that elections shall be fair, States should take the necessary measures to ensure that parties and candidates enjoy reasonable opportunities to present their electoral platform.
(5)States should take all necessary and appropriate measures to ensure that the principle of the secret ballot is respected, and that voters are able to cast their ballots freely, without fear or intimidation.
(6)Furthermore, State authorities should ensure that the ballot is conducted so as to avoid fraud or other illegality, that the security and the integrity of the process is maintained, and that ballot counting is undertaken by trained personnel, subject to monitoring and/or impartial verification.
(7)States should take all necessary and appropriate measures to ensure the transparency of the entire electoral process including, for example, through the presence of party agents and duly accredited observers.
(8)States should take the necessary measures to ensure that parties, candidates and supporters enjoy equal security, and that State authorities take the necessary steps to prevent electoral violence.
(9)States should ensure that violations of human rights and complaints relating to the electoral process are determined promptly within the timeframe of the electoral process and effectively by an independent and impartial authority, such as an electoral commission or the courts.