“ፋሽዝም :የማንቂያ ደወል” ከወ/ሮ ማድሊንኦልብራይት (ሸንቁጤ ከካናዳ)

የአሜሪካ የቀድሞዋ ውጭ ጉዳይ ሚንስትር እና ጎምቱ ፖለቲከኛ ወ/ሮ ማድሊንኦልብራይት “Fascism: A WARNING FROM MADELINE ALBRIGHT “ በሚል  በ2019 ያሳተሙን መፅሃፍ  ከሰሞኑ እያገላበጥኩ እግረመንገዴን መፅሃፋቸውን  አስመልክቶ ከተለያዩ መገናኛ ብዙሃን ጋር ያደረጉትን ውይይት በወፍ በረር ስቃኝ  ቀልቤን ሰንገው የሚይዙ ሃስቦችን  አገኘሁ:

madeleine albright1 1 scaled
MADELINE ALBRIGHT

ያሳለፍነው  የ20ኛው ክ/ዘመን  አብይ ክስተት( ሁነት) ሆኖ ያለፈው  በዲሞክራሲ እና ፋሺዝም  መሃል በተነሱግጭቶች ;ይህንኑ ተከትሎ የሰብዓዊ ነፃነት ህልውናን በእጅጉ  የተፈታተነው እልህ አስጨራሽ  ትግል እናየሚሊዮኖችን ህይወት  የቀጠፉት  ሁለት ጦርነቶች  የክ/ዘመኑ ዐቢይ መገለጫ  ናቸው እንደ ብዙሃን የታሪክምሁራን ግንዛቤ::

የወ/ሮ  ማድሊን “FASCISM: A WARNING” አሁን ያለንበትን ዘመን አደገኛ አካሄድ አጉልተን እንድናይ መነፅርየሚያውሰን ብቻ ሳይሆን ለየዘመናቱ  ተገቢነት( relevancy) ያለው መፅሃፍ በመሆኑ: በባለፈው ክፍለ ዘመንከተፈፀሙ አሰቃቂ እና  አሳዛኝ ስህተቶች ምን እንማራለን ? እነዚን ክስተቶች ላለመድገም መመለስ የሚገባቸውጥያቄዎችስ  ምንድን ናቸው  የሚለውን እየጠቆመ ይተነትናል:: እ.አ.አ  1997-2001 የመጀመሪያዋ ሴትአሜሪካዊት የውጭ ጉዳይ ሚንስትር በመሆን ያገለገሉት ወ/ሮ ማድሊን ኦልብራይት ለበርካታ አስርት አመታትያካበቱት የፖለቲካ ልምዳቸው ብቻ ሳይሆን የታሪክ  ትምህርት አጥኚ  መሆናቸው ይበልጥም በአገራቸው  የውጭጉዳይ እና አለም አቀፍ ዲፕሎማሲ  ታሪክ ቅርፅ ሂደት ላይ የራሳቸውን ጉልህ አሻራ ያሳረፉ መሆናቸው ለመፅሃፉ  ቅቡልነት እዎንታዊ ተፅዕኖ ይጨምራል:ይህንኑ መፅሀፋቸውን በተመለከት Vox  ከተባለ ድረገጽ ጋር ባደረጉት ቆይታ – “ፋሽዝም  ለሚለው ቃልየሚሰጡት ቀጥተኛ ትርጓሜ ምንድን ነው ?” ተብሎ ለተነሳላቸው ጥያቄ ሲመል

” አስቀድሞ  ይህንን “ፋሺዝም” የሚል  ቃል  በሀሳብ / በአቋም የተለየን ሁሉ መምቻ ሆኖ ከግራ-ቀኙሲወራወሩት ማየት አሳሳቢ( troublesome) ነው”  በማለት ይጀምሩና –

“በመፅሃፌ  መከራከሪያ አድርጌ የማቀርበው ፋሽዝም ፅንሰ ሀሳብ ( ideology)  ሳይሆን  ሂደት (process) ነው; ስልጣንን የመንጠቂያ እና ጠቅሎ በእጅ የማቆየት ሂደት ነው ” ይላሉ::

ፋሽስት ማን ነው?

ራሱን ተገፍቻለሁ ተበድያለሁ ከሚለው የብዙሃኑ  ስብስብ ጋር አቆራኝቶ ከህዳጣኑ ስብስብ በተፃራሪነትየሚቆም ; የብዙሃኑን ስብስብ መሪነት (የስልጣን ባለቤትነት)የ ህዳጣኑን መብት በመጨፍለቅ ( majority rule with out minority rights)  መያዝ ግቡ አድርጎ የሚታትር ግለሰብ ነው:: ለዚህም  ነው እንደዚህ ያሉ ግለሰቦች

ለብዙሃኑ(majority) ችግሮች ሁሉ ቁልፍ መንስዔ እና ተጠያቂ አድርገው የሚያቀርቡት ህዳጣኑን(minorities) የሚሆነው:: የእንደዚህ አይነት ግለሰቦች ዋነኛ ባህሪ  እንወክልሃለን ለሚሉት የብዙሃኑ ችግር መፍትሔከማመንጨት  እና  ከመፈለግ ይልቅ ኢላማ ያደርጉት ህዳጣኑን የችግሮቻቸው ሁሉ መንስዔ አድርጎ መሳል እናማጠልሸት ነው::ለሚፈጠሩ (ለተፈጠሩ) ችግሮች በሰለጠነ እና በሰከነ አካሄድ መፍትሄ ከማፈላለግ ይልቅችግሮቹን በማባባስ ላይ ይጠመዳሉ ; ይህም ልንወጣው ወደማንችል ክፍፍል አዘቅት ይዞንይወርዳል::በህብረተሰቡ እና በህገ መንግስት የተገነቡ ተቋማዊ  መዋቅሮችን ተቀባይነት ማሳጣትም(reject ማድረግ) ሌላው ዋንኛ ባህሪያቸው ነው በማለት ይቀጥላሉ ወ/ሮ ማድሊን-

” ሌላው ሊሰመርበት የሚገባ ዋንኛ የፋሽዝም ባህሪ  ነውጠኝነት( violence) ዋናው አካሉ ( crucial element) መሆኑ ነው; አላማው አድርጎ የተነሳውን ፖለቲካዊ ግብ ከዳር ለማድረስ ነውጠኝነትን ዋና መሳሪያው አድርጎይንቀሳቀሳል::

ፋሽዝም vs ህዝበኝንት( populism)

በነዚህ በሁለቱ መሃከል ያለው የልዩነት መስመር እጅግ የቀጠነ በመሆኑ አንዱን ከሌላው እንዴት መለየትይቻላል? ወ/ሮ ማድሊን ይህን ጥያቄ ለማብራራት የሚጀምሩት የህዝበኝነት እሳቤ  አነሳስ ብዙም ጎጂ አለመሆኑንበማስመር ነው::

ህዝበኝነት ( populism) የሚጠላ አስተሳብ አይደለም:: ቀድሞ ነገር ያለህን ፖለቲካዊም ሆነ ማህበራዊ  አጀንዳ  ከግብ ለማድረስ ድጋፍ ያስፈልግሃል- ህዝባዊ ድጋፍ እና ቅቡልነት:: ስስለዚህም   በአብዛሃኛው ህዝብ  ተቀባይነትያለውን አስተሳሰብ  በዴሞክራሲያዊ ስርዐት ውስጥ ማራመድ  ክፋት አይኖረውም::

ከሁለተኛው የዓለም ጦርነት ፍፃሜ በሗላ ለዲሞክራሲያዊ ስርዐት እና ግሎባል ኢኮኖሚ ግንባታ የተጣለውመሰረት ዐለማችንን ወደ ተረጋጋ ስርዓት የሰፈነበት 21ኛው ክ/ዘመን ያሻግራታል የሚለው ተስፋተደራራቢውስብስብ ምክንያቶች

ተጋርጠውበት እናገኛለን::

በተለይ አለማችንን አንድ ወደማድረግ ( globalization) ከነበረው ሂደት ብዙዎች የመጠቀማቸውን ያህል የራሱየሆነ ተግዳድሮት ነበረው:: ግሎባላይዜሽን ፊት አልባ( face less) ነው::የሰው ልጅ ደግሞ በተፍጥሯዊ ባህሪውማንነቱን ይፈልጋል ይጠይቃል:: ራሱን ይወክለኛል ከሚለው ሐይማኖት , ነገድ ወይም ብሄራዊ ማንነት ጋርየማስተሳሰር ዝንባሌ አለው:: በግሎባላይዜሽን ሂደቱ እና በሰው ልጅ የማነንት ፍላጎት መካክል በተፈጠረ ክፍተትላይ ነውእንግዲህ የ ህዝበኝነት (populism) እሳቤ ማቆጥቆጥ የጀመረው::

የማንነት ፖለቲካ  አስተሳብ ችግር የሚሆነው ; የኔ ማንነት  የሌላውን ማንነት እንድጠላ (እንድፀየፍ) ማድረግሲጀምር ነው:: ከችግርነትም አልፎ እጅግ አደገኛ ወደሆነ የብሄር በላይነት አስተሳብ  ብሎም ለስኬቱ  ወደየማያለሰልስ እንቅስቃሴ( hyper nationalism)ፅንፍ  ይሄዳል:: ይሄ አስተሳሰብ እና የሚጏዝበት መንገድ  ሳይታወቀንበቡድን ወደተደራጀ የለየለት  የዘውግ ፖለቲካ ( political tribalism ) ሽኩቻ እና ግጭት ይዞን ጭልጥ  ይላል::

ትልቁ ስጋትም እንደ ህዝበኝነት ያሉ አስተሳስቦች በፍጥነት ወደ ፋሽዝም እንቅስቃሴ ሊለውጡ የመቻላቸውአባዜ ነው:: ፋሽዝም ከላይ በተገለፀው  አስተሳሰቦች የሚፈጠሩ ንዴቶች ቁጭቶችን እንደ ግብዐት በመጠቀምአመፅን የዋንኛ አጀንዳው ማስፈፀሚያ ቁልፍ አቋራጭ መንገዱ (strategy) ያደርገዋል:: ይህ አመፃን (violence) ቁልፍ የአጀንዳውማስፈፀሚያ ማድረጉ ነው ዋነኛ መለያ ባህሪው::

“If you pluck a chicken one feather at a time people don’t notice it”

ወ/ሮ  ማድሊን ኦልብራይት ለፋሽዚም እዚህም እዚያም ማቆጥቆጥ ስጋታቸው ምርኩዝ ያደረጉት ጥቅስነው ከላይ የሰፈርው:: ይህን ታሪካዊ አባባል የጠቀሱት ፋሺዝም ሲነሳ መገለጫው ከሆነው ከራሱ ከሙሶሎኒየአንድ ወቅት ንግግር ነው::

” የዶሮዋን ላባ አንድ በአንድ  በሂደት የምትነቅል ከሆነ ማንም አያስተውል!”  -ነበር  ያለውሙሶሎኒ::

የወ/ሮዋ  የስጋት ምንጭም  ይኸው ” የዶርዋን ላባ ቀስ በቀስ  የሚነጩ”  ግለሰቦችና ቡድኖች እዚህም እዚያምእንደ አሸን እየፈሉ መሆኑንአስረግጠው ይናገራሉ::

ጏዳችን ሲፈተሽ

—  ለእምነት እና  የእምነት አባቶች ያለን አክብሮት የቁልቁሊት መሄድ ከጀመረ ከራርሟል:: የእምነት  አባቶችበታዳጊ ወጣቶች ሲደበደቡ ቤተ እምነቶች በእሳት ሲጋዩ በቪዲዮ እየተቀረፀቀርቦልናል::ለአንድ ሰሞን መነጋገሪያከመሆን ባለፈ ሃይ ባይአልነበረም::

— መንግስት እና ባለስልጣናቱን እንደአሻንጉሊት ካልተጫወትናቸው (puppeteers  ካልሆን) የሚሉ ከበዙ ሰነባበተእኮ ጎበዝ? ተቋማቱን አቅመ ቢስ መሳለቂያ አድርጎ በማቅረብ  ተቀባይነት የማሳጣቱ ሂደት ከጀመረ ቢቆይምባለስልጣናቱም ህዝቡም ከተቻለ ባላየ ማለፍ ካልሆነ ደግሞ የዳር ተመልካች  መሆን እዲሱ ነባራዊ  ሁነት( the new normal)  ከሆነ ቆየ::

— በፖለቲካ እመለካከት የተለዩንን ሁሉ ጥንብ ርኩሳቸውን እያወጡ ” ውጉዝ ከመአርዮስ”  ማለቱ መቼም አዲስአይደለም ዛሬ ላይ! ተላምደነዋል::ይህ ብቻ ቢሆን ባልከፋ:: የተለየ ሀሳብ እምነት ፖሊሲ ካለህ ዝም ብለህተቀመጥ:: አልያ ግን የኔም ሆነ የምወክለው ቡድን ፍፁም ጠላት(ultimate enemy)ነህ:: እንዲያ ከሆነ ደግሞ  አንተም ደጋፊህም ፈፅሞ መጥፋት መደምሰስ አለብህ ; በማንኛውም መንገድ( by any means necessary)… ከዚህ ቀደም የሰማነው ይመስላል? Does it sound familiar?

—  እስከዛሬ ድረስ እየደረሰብህ ላለው ኢኮኖማያዊ  ፖለቲካዊ እና ታሪካዊ ግፍ  ተጠያቂው እከሌ የተባለው ቡድንእና ውላጆቹ ናቸው መፍትሄውም እካባቢህን ከነዚህ  ቡድኖች እና ርዝራዦቻቸው ማፅዳት የሚሉ <span class=”s4″

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